The city has had a turbulent history. It was the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty from 1163 to 1186. A Mongol army sacked Lahore in 1241. During the 14th century, the city was repeatedly attacked by the Mongols until 1398, when it fell under the control of the Turkic conqueror Timur. In 1524 it was captured by the Mughal Bābur’s troops. This marked the beginning of Lahore’s golden age under the Mughal dynasty when the city was often the place of royal residence. It was greatly expanded during the reign of Shāh Jahān (1628–58) but declined in importance during the reign of his successor, Aurangzeb.
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